The Internet-of-Batteries (IoB) is a network system consisting of batteries, the Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud servers. IoB connects batteries to a network and incorporates intelligent algorithms. This technology has the potential to modernize various industries, including renewable energy, electric vehicles, and grid management.
This FAQ discusses the architecture of the IoB from the perspective of electric vehicles (EVs). The multiple benefits of the IoB for EVs are discussed at the end.
Architecture of the Internet-of-Batteries
Figure 1 shows the architecture of the IoB. It consists of three main components: battery systems, an IoT gateway, and a cloud platform, as well as two additional components — a battery management system (BMS) and a wireless module, which are integrated inside the battery systems.
Each component of IoB is explained as follows:
• Battery systems
The battery systems are the core energy storage units within the IoB framework. Designers create these systems to store and release electrical energy as needed. They come in various forms and sizes. The battery system ranges from small-scale consumer batteries to large-scale industrial or grid-connected storage solutions.
The IoB relies on smart batteries equipped with advanced technologies. These include BMS and wireless communication modules, which enhance monitoring and control capabilities.
• IoT gateway
The IoT gateway serves as a bridge between the battery systems and the broader IoT network. It collects data from the connected batteries. It also facilitates communication between the batteries and the cloud platform.
The gateway plays a crucial role in ensuring seamless and secure data transmission. It enables real-time monitoring and control of the battery systems. It often includes communication protocols and provides security measures to protect the data’s integrity.
• Cloud platform
The cloud platform stores, processes, and analyzes the data from the battery systems in a centralized hub. Cloud computing technology enables scalability, flexibility, and data accessibility from anywhere with an internet connection.
The platform facilitates comprehensive monitoring, management, and optimization of battery performance. It may include advanced analytics, machine learning algorithms, and predictive maintenance tools. These improve the efficiency and lifespan of the batteries.
• Battery management system (BMS)
The BMS is an internal component embedded within each battery system. It plays a pivotal role in monitoring and managing the individual cells within a battery pack. The BMS ensures optimal performance by balancing the charge among cells. It also protects against overcharging or discharging.
Additionally, the BMS provides crucial information about the health of the battery. In the IoB context, the IoT gateway transmits BMS data to the cloud platform. This contributes to the comprehensive monitoring and management of the entire battery fleet.
• Wireless module
The wireless module is another integral part integrated into the battery systems. It enables wireless communication. The batteries can connect to the IoT gateway without physical cables. This wireless connectivity enhances the flexibility and scalability of IoB systems. It also makes deploying and managing battery solutions in various applications easier.
The module facilitates real-time data transmission. This contributes to swift decision-making and proactive maintenance strategies for optimal battery performance.
Benefits of the Internet-of-Batteries
There are many benefits to using the IoB in EV engineering. A few of them are as follows:
- Improved battery health monitoring: Continuous monitoring of battery parameters helps identify abnormal issues. Parameters include temperature, voltage, and state of charge.
- Energy management optimization: Batteries communicate with energy-management systems. This allows for dynamic adjustments in energy usage based on demand. Furthermore, this can lead to more efficient energy use and cost savings.
- Improved troubleshooting: The IoB facilitates remote monitoring and diagnostics. Technicians can access detailed information about the batteries if there’s a problem. This enables quicker and more accurate troubleshooting. There’s no need for a physical inspection.
- Lower weight and costs: A lot of unnecessary wiring structures are removed. This helps in lowering the weight and costs. Manufacturers can further reduce costs and enhance performance by identifying areas for improvement. For this purpose, data analysis is a useful process.
- Scalability: The IoB can support the integration of batteries from different manufacturers. It allows for a scalable and interoperable energy storage ecosystem. It also makes it easy to incorporate new technologies and expand energy storage systems as needed.
- Cross-platform data sharing: Different platforms and devices can seamlessly share data. But standard protocols are necessary for the same. This interoperability is essential for creating comprehensive energy ecosystems. To achieve this, batteries must interact with various devices and systems.
The IoB enables real-time monitoring, optimization, and control of battery systems. It continuously collects data on battery health, performance, and usage patterns. It also enables proactive maintenance and optimization strategies. This can result in improved battery lifespan, increased energy efficiency, and cost savings for electric vehicles.
- IoB: Internet-of-batteries for electric Vehicles – Architectures, opportunities, and challenges, Elsevier
- A Survey of Wireless Battery Management System: Topology, Emerging Trends, and Challenges, MDPI
- A Comprehensive Review on Electric Vehicle: Battery Management System, Charging Station, Traction Motors, IEEE Access
- Figure 1, Elsevier, Page 3, Figure 1
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Filed Under: Batteries, FAQ